# Characterization of ZENER1.WAV

Statistic and graphic characterization of .WAV file noise data from the
generator page and characterization page.

### Contents

### Data Source and Sample

`
.WAV file:
ZENER1.WAV
;
filter: raw; offset in els: 0`

16-bit els in file: 396900; secs @ 44100: 9.000000

16-bit els in samp: 102400; secs @ 44100: 2.321995

### Descriptive Statistics

`
min el value: -26582;
max el value: 28412;
range: 54995`

mean: -116.4005;
std err of mean: 19.29;
avg dev: 4852.95

vari: 38108738;
std dev: 6173.23;
skew: 0.3250;
kurt: 0.1911

### Information

`
unique values: 26613;
highest repetition: 20;
entropy: 14.348`

aug doubles: 247451;
est population: 21187.34; lg2 pop: 14.371

### Expectations

`
rms: 6174.295;
std dev: 6173.23; rms/std dev: 1.000173`

rms: 6174.295; avg: 4860.771; rms/avg: 1.270; expect: 1.25

peak: 27497; peak/rms (crest factor): 4.453; expect: 3..5

maxima: 29762;
expect: 35972; maxima/expect: 0.827

### Frequency Graph

Magnitude vs. Frequency, averaged over
100 FFT blocks of 1024 values each.

The vertical red line near the center is 10 kHz;
the vertical green line at the right is 20 kHz, and
the vertical red line at the far left is 100 Hz.

The horizontal light gray line is the average from
1 kHz to 20 kHz; the horizontal green lines above and
below the mean represent +/- 0.5 dB; and
the red lines above and below those represent +/- 1.0 dB.

Also see
FFT Graph in the noise glossary.

### Autocorrelation Graph

Autocorrelation vs. Offset, averaged over
100 FFT blocks of 1024 values each.

The horizontal light gray line is zero.
The 512 horizontal columns represent rotation positions.
The spike at zero is normalized to 4096 which plots as 255.

Also see
Autocorrelation Graph in the noise glossary.

### Normal Graph

Distribution of Data Values, around the mean
and through 4 standard deviations on each side.

The vertical light gray line is the mean;
the vertical green lines are standard deviations;
and the red line is the ideal normal distribution.

Also see
Normal Graph in the noise glossary.

*Terry Ritter, his
current address, and his
top page. *

*Last updated:* 1999-06-21